Younas MuhammadAgricultural University Peshawar, Pakistan
Title: DOES SOCIAL STRATIFICATION PREDICT HOUSEHOLD FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURITY? A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
Food security is a multifaceted and manifold paradox that includes social, biological, nutritional and economic aspects. Food is not only related to dietetic sources but also plays numerous roles in social life and is closely linked to cultural differentials. Despite its multi-dimensional approach, food security has been molded in a number of ways since its dawn. However, food security was transformed from a micro to a macro level during the World Food Conference of 1974. Food security exists “when all people at all times have physical, economic and social access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food, essential for meeting their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. The present study was conducted in light of a sociological perspective in the district of Torghar, Northern Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan to assess the household food security status. A sample of 379 household head was selected out of 26464 as per the proportional allocation method. Moreover, descriptive and inferential statistics was further used at descriptive and bivariate analysis. With regards to demographic profile of the respondents 37% of household heads were between the ages of 46- 55, with 42% of illiterates, 70% of household heads were part of a joint family system, and 84 percent were waiting for rain to irrigate their agricultural area. In addition, the results further found that men were predominantly focused on the provision whereas with females the predominant focus is on food security. Social stratification directly affects the nature and frequency of food on sustainable grounds, various social classes exhibit distinct differences in food behavior. The division of labor does favor men as a resultant factor of cultural inclination, and food insecurity and hunger are social injustices and reciprocal in response. Therefore, an awareness programme through social media combining "walk for the hungry" and other similar fund-raising programs focused at national and local levels was the order of the day. This could change the existing scenario of food insecurity in the study area.
Key words: Food Security, Social Stratification, Social class, Division of Labor, Chi-square Statistics